Life in Poverty Neighbourhoods: European and American Perspectives
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Analysis of social aspects of poverty links conditions of scarcity to aspects of the distribution of resources and power in a society and recognizes that poverty may be a function of the diminished "capability" of people to live the kinds of lives they value. The social aspects of poverty may include lack of access to information , education , health care , social capital or political power.
Poverty levels are snapshot pictures in time that omits the transitional dynamics between levels.
European and American Perspectives, 1st Edition
Mobility statistics supply additional information about the fraction who leave the poverty level. For example, one study finds that in a sixteen-year period to in the U. The transient poor and chronic poor differ in each society. In a nine-year period ending in for the U. Poverty may also be understood as an aspect of unequal social status and inequitable social relationships, experienced as social exclusion, dependency, and diminished capacity to participate, or to develop meaningful connections with other people in society.
The World Bank's "Voices of the Poor," based on research with over 20, poor people in 23 countries, identifies a range of factors which poor people identify as part of poverty. These include:. David Moore, in his book The World Bank , argues that some analysis of poverty reflect pejorative, sometimes racial, stereotypes of impoverished people as powerless victims and passive recipients of aid programs. Ultra-poverty, a term apparently coined by Michael Lipton,  connotes being amongst poorest of the poor in low-income countries.
Alternatively a report issued by International Food Policy Research Institute defined ultra-poverty as living on less than 54 cents per day. Asset poverty is an economic and social condition that is more persistent and prevalent than income poverty. Basic needs refer to the minimum standards for consumption and acceptable needs.
Wealth resources consist of home ownership, other real estate second home, rented properties, etc. Wealth is measured in three forms: net worth, net worth minus home equity, and liquid assets. Net worth consists of all the aspects mentioned above. Net worth minus home equity is the same except it does not include home ownership in asset calculations.
Liquid assets are resources that are readily available such as cash, checking and savings accounts, stocks, and other sources of savings. There are two types of assets: tangible and intangible. Tangible assets most closely resemble liquid assets in that they include stocks, bonds, property, natural resources, and hard assets not in the form of real estate.
Intangible assets are simply the access to credit, social capital , cultural capital , political capital , and human capital. The effects of poverty may also be causes as listed above, thus creating a "poverty cycle" operating across multiple levels, individual, local, national and global. One third of deaths around the world — some 18 million people a year or 50, per day — are due to poverty-related causes.
People living in developing nations, among them women and children, are over represented among the global poor and these effects of severe poverty. Poverty has been shown to impede cognitive function. One way in which this may happen is that financial worries put a severe burden on one's mental resources so that they are no longer fully available for solving complicated problems. The reduced capability for problem solving can lead to suboptimal decisions and further perpetuate poverty. Infectious diseases continue to blight the lives of the poor across the world.
Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S. | pertamotor.cf
Every year there are — million cases of malaria, with 1 million fatalities: Africa accounts for 90 percent of malarial deaths and African children account for over 80 percent of malaria victims worldwide. Rises in the costs of living make poor people less able to afford items. Poor people spend a greater portion of their budgets on food than wealthy people. As a result, poor households and those near the poverty threshold can be particularly vulnerable to increases in food prices. For example, in late increases in the price of grains  led to food riots in some countries.
According to the Global Hunger Index , Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest child malnutrition rate of the world's regions over the — period. As part of the Sustainable Development Goals the global community has made the elimination of hunger and undernutrition a priority for the coming years.
Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S.
While the Goal 2 of the SDGs aims to reach this goal by  a number of initiatives aim to achieve the goal 5 years earlier, by Research has found that there is a high risk of educational underachievement for children who are from low-income housing circumstances. This is often a process that begins in primary school for some less fortunate children. Instruction in the US educational system, as well as in most other countries, tends to be geared towards those students who come from more advantaged backgrounds.
As a result, children in poverty are at a higher risk than advantaged children for retention in their grade, special deleterious placements during the school's hours and even not completing their high school education. One is the conditions of which they attend school. Schools in poverty-stricken areas have conditions that hinder children from learning in a safe environment. Researchers have developed a name for areas like this: an urban war zone is a poor, crime-laden district in which deteriorated, violent, even war-like conditions and underfunded, largely ineffective schools promote inferior academic performance, including irregular attendance and disruptive or non-compliant classroom behavior.
For children with low resources, the risk factors are similar to others such as juvenile delinquency rates, higher levels of teenage pregnancy , and the economic dependency upon their low-income parent or parents. Higher rates of early childbearing with all the connected risks to family, health and well-being are major important issues to address since education from preschool to high school are both identifiably meaningful in a life. Poverty often drastically affects children's success in school. A child's "home activities, preferences, mannerisms" must align with the world and in the cases that they do not do these, students are at a disadvantage in the school and, most importantly, the classroom.
Poor children have a great deal less healthcare and this ultimately results in many absences from the academic year. Additionally, poor children are much more likely to suffer from hunger, fatigue, irritability, headaches, ear infections, flu, and colds. For a child to grow up emotionally healthy, the children under three need "A strong, reliable primary caregiver who provides consistent and unconditional love, guidance, and support.
Safe, predictable, stable environments. Ten to 20 hours each week of harmonious, reciprocal interactions. This process, known as attunement, is most crucial during the first 6—24 months of infants' lives and helps them develop a wider range of healthy emotions, including gratitude, forgiveness, and empathy.
Enrichment through personalized, increasingly complex activities".
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Harmful spending habits mean that the poor typically spend about 2 percent of their income educating their children but larger percentages of alcohol and tobacco For example, 6 percent in Indonesia and 8 percent in Mexico. Poverty has been also considered a real social phenomenon reflecting more the consequences of a lack of income than the lack of income per se Ferragina et al.
According to Townsend: humans are social animals entangled in a web of relationships, which exert complex and changing pressures, as much in their consumption of goods and services as in any other aspect of their behaviour Townsend . This idea has received theoretical support from scholars and extensive testimony from people experiencing poverty across the globe Walker .
Participation and consumption have become ever more crucial mechanisms through which people establish and communicate their identity and position in society, increasing the premium attached to resources needed to participate Giddens . In addition, the concept of social exclusion has been added to the lexicon of poverty related terms, describing the process by which people, especially those on low incomes, can become socially and politically detached from mainstream society and its associated resources and opportunities Cantillon .
Equally western society have become more complex with ethnic diversity, multi-culturalism and life-style choices raising the possibility that a single concept of poverty as conceived in the past might no longer apply Ferragina et al.
Poverty increases the risk of homelessness. There are over million street children worldwide. As of , 2. Even while providing latrines is a challenge, people still do not use them even when available. By strategically providing pit latrines to the poorest, charities in Bangladesh sparked a cultural change as those better off perceived it as an issue of status to not use one. The vast majority of the latrines built were then not from charities but by villagers themselves. Water utility subsidies tend to subsidize water consumption by those connected to the supply grid, which is typically skewed towards the richer and urban segment of the population and those outside informal housing.
Instead, the poor buy water from water vendors for, on average, about five to 16 times the metered price. Similarly, the poorest fifth receive 0.
According to experts, many women become victims of trafficking, the most common form of which is prostitution , as a means of survival and economic desperation. Max Weber and some schools of modernization theory suggest that cultural values could affect economic success. The Great Smoky Mountains Study was a ten-year study that was able to demonstrate this. During the study, about one-quarter of the families saw a dramatic and unexpected increase in income.
The study showed that among these children, instances of behavioral and emotional disorders decreased, and conscientiousness and agreeableness increased. One paper, based on a sampling of 9, U. S, adults, claimed that poverty tends to correlate with laziness and other such traits. The poor are wasters, losers and scammers" are largely inaccurate, as "the poor are overwhelmingly those born into poverty, or those thrust there by circumstances largely beyond their control, such as physical or mental disabilities, divorce, family breakdown, illness, old age, unliveable wages or discrimination in the job market.
Cultural factors, such as discrimination of various kinds, can negatively affect productivity such as age discrimination , stereotyping ,  discrimination against people with physical disability,  gender discrimination , racial discrimination , and caste discrimination.
Women are the group suffering from the highest rate of poverty after children; In addition, the fact that women are more likely to be caregivers, regardless of income level, to either the generations before or after them, exacerbates the burdens of their poverty. Causes of poverty is a highly ideologically charged subject, as different causes point to different remedies. Very broadly speaking, the socialist tradition locates the roots of poverty in problems of distribution and the use of the means of production as capital benefiting individuals, and calls for re-distribution of wealth as the solution, whereas the neoliberal school of thought is dedicated the idea that creating conditions for profitable private investment is the solutions.
Neoliberal think tanks have received extensive funding,  and the ability to apply many of their ideas in highly indebted countries in the global South as a condition for receiving emergency loans from the International Monetary Fund. Various poverty reduction strategies are broadly categorized based on whether they make more of the basic human needs available or whether they increase the disposable income needed to purchase those needs. Some strategies such as building roads can both bring access to various basic needs, such as fertilizer or healthcare from urban areas, as well as increase incomes, by bringing better access to urban markets.
Statistics of shows population living in extreme conditions has declined by more than 1 billion in the last 25 years. As per the report published by the world bank on September 19, world poverty falls below million. Agricultural technologies such as nitrogen fertilizers , pesticides, new seed varieties and new irrigation methods have dramatically reduced food shortages in modern times by boosting yields past previous constraints.
Before the Industrial Revolution , poverty had been mostly accepted as inevitable as economies produced little, making wealth scarce. Even with new products, such as better seeds, or greater volumes of them, such as industrial production, the poor still require access to these products. Improving road and transportation infrastructure helps solve this major bottleneck. In Africa, it costs more to move fertilizer from an African seaport 60 miles inland than to ship it from the United States to Africa because of sparse, low-quality roads, leading to fertilizer costs two to six times the world average.
Nations do not necessarily need wealth to gain health. Strategies to provide education cost effectively include deworming children, which costs about 50 cents per child per year and reduces non-attendance from anemia , illness and malnutrition, while being only a twenty-fifth as expensive as increasing school attendance by constructing schools. Desirable actions such as enrolling children in school or receiving vaccinations can be encouraged by a form of aid known as conditional cash transfers.
Instead, there is less excuse for neglectful behavior as, for example, children stopped begging on the streets instead of going to school because it could result in suspension from the program. Government revenue can be diverted away from basic services by corruption. Illicit capital flight from the developing world is estimated at ten times the size of aid it receives and twice the debt service it pays,  with one estimate that most of Africa would be developed if the taxes owed were paid.