Global Economy: Corellated to Dark Energy Modulations

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E-mail Address. Read previous Climate Research update Carbon cycle changes. Smith [] proposed a theory showing that both density enhancements and depletions can trap whistler waves under certain conditions. More recently, Streltsov et al. They found that both enhanced and depleted plasma densities can lead to the intensification of chorus whistler wave amplitudes. Ducts caused by density variations would substantially alter the paths of propagation of the whistler waves. We sort the events into two categories; chorus modulation by i density depletions DD and ii density enhancements DE.

We investigate how well the chorus modulation in each category can be explained by the changes in the linear wave growth rate. In Section 2 , two DD events and two DE events are analyzed in detail, followed by a statistical analysis of the global distribution of each type of event.

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In Section 3 we analyze the variation of linear growth rates for each type of event and compare our results to the observed wave intensity change. In Sections 4 and 5 we discuss and summarize the principal results of the present study. Total electron density used in this study is inferred from the spacecraft potential.


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Since the present paper investigates chorus modulation on a timescale of a few seconds to tens of seconds, all data used is obtained during the interval when particle burst data is available in order to get the wave data with high resolution in time and frequency. These THEMIS data have been utilized to investigate the role of density variations in the modulation of chorus wave amplitudes in the dominant chorus source region.

Figure 1 shows an overview of the properties of the plasma associated with chorus modulation observed on 15 October as THEMIS E traversed the typical chorus source region [e. In contrast, the wave amplitude of the upper band chorus in the frequency band of 0. During this time interval, the omnidirectional electron energy fluxes were large Figure 1a and the electron anisotropy Figure 1b was elevated for electrons with energies of 1—5 keV and 10—30 keV.

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Figure 1c shows electron energy fluxes roughly perpendicular and parallel to the ambient magnetic field over the energy range 3—30 keV: the larger perpendicular flux provides a favorable condition for chorus excitation. Figure 1f shows the minimum resonant energies of electrons for chorus waves with frequencies of 0. Although the background magnetic field Figure 1e and resonant electron flux Figure 1c showed slight variations, a clear correlation with the wave amplitude modulation was not observed.

Most importantly, the lower band chorus wave amplitude increased when the electron density decreased and the wave amplitude was larger when the density was smaller, as highlighted by the light gray shading.

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The perpendicular electron flux was larger than the parallel flux, thus providing favorable conditions for the chorus generation. We analyzed the electron flux data for each available energy channel from ESA and SST to investigate whether electrons in any specific energy range responded to the total electron density change and found that none of the available electron energy channels showed a corresponding change. Although the background magnetic field Figure 2e and resonant electron flux Figure 2c showed slight variations, they are not correlated with the chorus modulation.

The minimum resonant energy for waves with frequencies of 0.


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However, the chorus modulation is clearly associated with the variation in the total electron density. The resulting variations in the magnetic field and density are shown in Figures 3a and 3b and compared in Figure 3c to the integrated wave amplitude same as Figure 2g. Density depletions are correlated remarkably well with increases in the wave amplitude, such that in every density trough region, the maximum wave amplitude coincides almost exactly with the density minimum. On the other hand, electron fluxes in the measurable energy range on ESA and SST did not show a change corresponding to the total electron density, indicating that the energy of electrons responsible for the total density change is probably below a few eV.

The perpendicular electron flux was larger than the parallel flux, favorable for the chorus generation. The transient increases in the low energy electron flux are not due to photo electrons of spacecraft origin because the spacecraft potential decreased at these times. Spectrograms of wave electric and magnetic fields Figures 4h and 4i and the integrated wave magnetic amplitudes over 0.

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The resonant electron flux Figure 4c and background magnetic field Figure 4e showed no apparent variation in response to the wave amplitude. Interestingly, wave amplitudes Figure 4g increased substantially in association with these density enhancements, which also led to decreases in minimum resonant energy for both 0. Moreover, the chorus amplitude was largest at the density peak and tended to be smaller as the density fell to background levels.

This event Case 4 shows much larger density enhancements than those in Case 3. The perpendicular component of the resonant electron flux was larger than the parallel flux, as shown in Figure 5c. The intensity of the background magnetic field Figure 5e gradually increased from higher to lower L shells without showing corresponding variations in the wave amplitudes. Significant variations in the minimum resonant energy due to the substantial change in the total electron density are shown in Figure 5f for various wave frequencies.

In Figures 5h and 5i wave electric and magnetic fields of lower band chorus varied significantly in both the intensity and the frequencies of the chorus waves. The wave magnetic field intensity in Figure 5i was integrated over a frequency range 0. The comparison of the total electron density and the chorus wave amplitude shows that the wave amplitude increased and the central frequency of the generated waves decreased, when the total electron density increased and vice versa.

An increase in the total electron density would allow waves with lower frequencies to resonate with the electron population with a given energy, which contains a source of free energy for the wave generation.

Introduction

The solid white line in Figure 6b represents the calculated resonant wave frequency for electrons with the minimum resonant energy of 8 keV. The predicted resonant wave frequency agrees remarkably well with the observed central wave frequency. This consistency confirms that generated wave frequencies tend to be smaller when the total electron density increases and vice versa.

In both events, density enhancements are well correlated with increases in the wave amplitude, such that near the density crest, the maximum of the wave intensity coincides almost precisely with the density peak. In order to comprehensively investigate conditions and locations where density depletions and enhancements play a significant role in chorus intensity enhancement, we systematically surveyed all of the particle burst data available between 1 June and 1 August in regions with L shells between 5 and 12, observed by the three inner probes of THEMIS A, D, and E.

We calculated the correlation coefficients of the total electron density and the wave amplitude CC nbw every 1 min and recorded the maximum wave amplitude during each 1 min interval, and L shell and MLT at the center time of the 1 min interval. The selected events were required to satisfy the following criteria.

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First, the maximum wave amplitude of chorus waves during a 1 min time interval exceeds 20 pT in order to select reasonably intense chorus events. Second, for DE events CC nbw is larger than 0. Third, events must occur outside the plasmapause but inside the magnetopause. Note that the location of the plasmapause is determined using the method described by Li et al. Finally, events must occur in the dominant chorus region between 22 and 14 MLT in order to exclude hiss in plumes, which predominantly occurs in the late afternoon and dusk sectors [ Meredith et al.

Figures 7b and 7c show the distribution of DE and DD events respectively.